Pengalaman pertama di tahun ajaran baru ini adalah pelaksanaan matrikulasi untuk calon peserta didik baru kelas X ditahun ajaran 2011/2010.
Adam Smith (economist) (1723-1790), British philosopher and economist, whose celebrated treatise An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations was the first serious attempt to study the nature of capital and the historical development of industry and commerce among European nations.
Although this view has undergone considerable modification by economists in the light of historical developments since Smith's time, many sections of The Wealth of Nations, notably those relating to the sources of income and the nature of capital, have continued to form the basis for theoretical study in the field of political economy. The Wealth of Nations has also served, perhaps more than any other single work in its field, as a guide to the formulation of governmental economic policies.
WHAT IS ECONOMICS?
The first thing that we should discuss is the definition of "economics." Economists generally define economics as the study of how individuals and societies use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants. To see how this concept works, think about your own situation. Do you have enough time available for everything that you wish to do? Can you afford every item that you would like to own? Economists argue that virtually everyone wants more of something. Even the wealthiest individuals in society do not seem to be exempt from this phenomenon.
This problem of limited resources and unlimited wants also applies to society as a whole. Can you think of any societies in which all wants are satisfied? Most societies would prefer to have better health care, higher quality education, less poverty, a cleaner environment, etc. Unfortunately, there are not enough resources available to satisfy all of these goals.
Thus, economists argue that the fundamental economic problem is scarcity. Since there are not enough resources available to satisfy everyone’s wants, individuals and societies have to choose among available alternatives. An alternative, and equivalent, definition of economics is that economics is the study of how such choices are made.
The field of economics:
THE MAIN ECONOMICS MATERIAL FOR GREAT X
1. SCARCITY, CHOICE, OPPORTUNITY COST, AND ALLOCATION OF RESOURCE
Humans have many different types of wants and needs. Economics looks only at man’s material wants and needs. They will be satisfied if they consume (use) either goods (physical items such as food) or services (non-physical items such as heating).
The opportunity cost principle states the cost of one good in terms of the next best alternative. For example, a gardener decides to grow carrots on his allotment.
There are three basic economic problems, which involve:
a. What and how many products are produced?
b. How to produce the product?
c. For whom are the products produced?
To overcome the economic problem, governments use the economic system:
a. Market Economic System
b. Command Economic System
c. Mixed Economic System
2. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF CONSUMER AND PRODUCER
3. DEMAND, SUPPLY, EQUILIBRIUM PRICE, AND MARKET
The demand for a good or service is defined to be the relationship that exists between the price of the good and the quantity demanded in a given time period, ceteris paribus.
Supply is the relationship that exists between the price of a good and the quantity supplied in a given time period, ceteris paribus.
The combination of price and quantity represents equilibrium since the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.
The market based on its competition:
a. Perfect Competition Market
b. Imperfect Competition Market:
3. Monopolistic Competition
4. GOVERNMENT POLICY IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMY
The government role in the economic life, influence by the ideas of economist John Maynard Keynes. Government policy in economic is the ways will do by the government to arrange the national economic life to reach/attain the aim.
a. The problem of economy growth
b. The problem of inflation
c. The problem of unemployment
d. The problem of poverty
5. NATIONAL INCOME AND INFLATION
In the theory of economic, National Income is the total net income earned by the people of a country in producing the national output of goods and services over a period of time, usually a calendar year. Strictly, National income money measure of the income received or accruing to residents of a country a specified period of time.
Concepts of National Income:
a. GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
b. GNP ( Gross National Product)
c. NNP (Net National Product)
d. NNI (Net National Income)
e. PI (Personal Income)
f. DI (Disposable Income)
Inflation is a condition in which the value of money is decreasing because the increasing of the price of goods and services continuously
6. CONSUMPTION AND INVESTMENT
All income is either spent on consumption or saved in an economy in which there are no taxes. The part of its income that household does not consume in a given period is called saving.
The relationship between consumption and income is called a consumption function. In the linier form, the consumption function has equation as follows
C = a + b Y
Investment means as expenditure of the investors or companies for buying capital goods and production equipments in order to improve their ability to produce available goods and services in economy.
The relationship between investment and income is called an investment function.
In the linear form, investment function can be follows:
I = Io + Ay
7. MONEY AND BANKING
Money is an agreement, within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange.
Bank is the institution whose main job is as the medium to transfer the demand and supply of credit on certain time.
OK..........we will learn the all of economics material after you become the real student of SMAN 1 PATI